Greece Cancer Test

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Dr. Hammon and Dr. Papasotiriou discuss the Greece Cancer Test.

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Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2012 Jun;91(6):1001-9.

Whole-genome sequencing in personalized therapeutics.

Cordero P, Ashley EA.

Program in Biomedical Informatics, Stanford University, Stanford, California, USA.


Eleven years since the initial drafts of the human genome were published, we have begun to see the first examples of the application of whole-genome sequencing to personalized diagnosis and therapeutics. The exponential decline in sequencing costs and the constant improvement in these technologies promise to further advance the use of a patient's full genetic profile in the clinic. However, realizing the potential benefit of such sequencing will require a concerted effort by science, medicine, law, and management. In this review, we discuss current approaches to decoding the 6 billion-letter genetic code of a whole genome in a clinical context, give current examples of translating this information into therapy-guiding knowledge, and list the challenges that will need to be surmounted before these powerful data can be fully exploited to forward the goals of personalized medicine.



[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Eur Heart J. 2012 Jul;33(13):1564-70. Epub 2012 Jun 1.

Personalized medicine: hope or hype?

Salari K, Watkins H, Ashley EA.

Department of Genetics, Stanford University School of Medicine, 300 Pasteur Drive, Stanford, CA 94305, USA.


Medicine has always been personalized. For years, physicians have incorporated environmental, behavioural, and genetic factors that affect disease and drug response into patient management decisions. However, until recently, the 'genetic' data took the form of family history and self-reported race/ethnicity. As genome sequencing declines in cost, the availability of specific genomic information will no longer be limiting. Rather, our ability to parse these data and our decision whether to use it will become primary. As our understanding of genetic association with drug responses and diseases continues to improve, clinically useful genetic tests may emerge to improve upon our previous methods of assessing genetic risks. Indeed, genetic tests for monogenic disorders have already proven useful. Such changes may usher in a new era of personalized medicine. In this review, we will discuss the utility and limitations of personal genomic data in three domains: pharmacogenomics, assessment of genetic predispositions for common diseases, and identification of rare disease-causing genetic variants.

Comment in

Nature 452, 564-570 (3 April 2008) | doi:10.1038/nature06915; Published online 2 April 2008

Review Article Enabling personalized cancer medicine through analysis of gene-expression patterns

Laura J. van 't Veer1,2,3 & René Bernards1,3,4,5


Therapies for patients with cancer have changed gradually over the past decade, moving away from the administration of broadly acting cytotoxic drugs towards the use of more-specific therapies that are targeted to each tumour. To facilitate this shift, tests need to be developed to identify those individuals who require therapy and those who are most likely to benefit from certain therapies. In particular, tests that predict the clinical outcome for patients on the basis of the genes expressed by their tumours are likely to increasingly affect patient management, heralding a new era of personalized medicine.

  1. Agendia BV, Louwesweg 6, 1066 EC Amsterdam, the Netherlands.
  2. Division of Pathology, the Netherlands Cancer Institute, Plesmanlaan 121, 1066 CX Amsterdam, the Netherlands.
  3. Cancer Genomics Centre, the Netherlands Cancer Institute, Plesmanlaan 121, 1066 CX Amsterdam, the Netherlands.
  4. Centre for Biomedical Genetics, the Netherlands Cancer Institute, Plesmanlaan 121, 1066 CX Amsterdam, the Netherlands.
  5. Division of Molecular Carcinogenesis, the Netherlands Cancer Institute, Plesmanlaan 121, 1066 CX Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

Metabolism. 2012 Sep 25. pii: S0026-0495(12)00327-7. doi: 10.1016/j.metabol.2012.08.023. [Epub ahead of print]

Role of genomics on the path to personalized medicine.

Tremblay J, Hamet P.

Research Centre, Centre hospitalier de l'Université de Montréal (CRCHUM)-Technopôle Angus, 2901 Rachel Street East, Room 314, H1W 4A4 and Prognomix Inc. 4101 Molson Street, Room 201, H1Y 3L1, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.


Technology continues to lead the field of personalized medicine as the interpretation of the human genome is progressing. The cost and duration of genomic sequencing continue to decrease sharply and there is intensive research aimed at understanding how the changes that occur within the genome can alter its function and the genomic variations that constitute individual susceptibility to diseases and responses to therapy. The overlay of a personal genome with the personal medical record of patients has a potential to improve prediction and prevention and to allow a more pro-active therapeutic strategy. It is evident that pharmacogenomics and individualized drug therapy are the building blocks of personalized medicine. A growing number of drugs are now used for the treatment of cancer in subjects selected by a companion genetic test. Personalized medicine while based upon genomic knowledge of the individual requires equally essential personalised environmental information as well as the understanding of every subject's capacity for health-promoting behaviour.

Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

PMID: 23021037 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]